The spatial composition, functional zoning, crowd organization and evacuation of public buildings, as well as the measurement, shape and physical environment (quantity, shape and quality) of space. Among them, the prominent focus is the nature of the use of architectural space and streamline activities.
Although the nature and type of use of various public buildings are different, they can be divided into three parts: the main use part, the secondary use part (or auxiliary part) and the traffic connection part. In the design, we should first grasp the relationship of these three parts to for arrangement and combination, and solve various contradictions one by one in order to obtain the rationality and perfection of the functional relationship. In the constituent relationship of these three parts, the allocation of traffic connection space often plays a key role.
The traffic connection part can be generally divided into three basic spatial forms: horizontal traffic, vertical traffic and hub traffic.
Key Points of Horizontal Traffic Layout:
It should be straightforward, prevent twists and turns, be closely related to each part of the space, and have better daylighting and lighting. For example, walkway.
Key Points of Vertical Traffic Layout:
The location and quantity depend on the functional needs and fire fighting requirements. It shall be close to the transportation hub, evenly arranged with primary and secondary points, and suitable for the number of users.
Key Points of Transportation Hub Layout:
It shall be convenient to use, appropriate in space, reasonable in structure, appropriate in decoration, economical and effective. Both the use function and the creation of spatial artistic conception shall be taken into account.
In the design of public buildings, considering the distribution of people, the change of direction, the transition of space and the connection with aisles, stairs and other spaces, it is necessary to arrange halls and other forms of space to play the role of transportation hub and space transition.
The design of the entrance and exit of the entrance hall is mainly based on two requirements: one is the requirements for use, and the other is the requirements for space processing.
Functional Zoning of Public Buildings:
The concept of functional zoning is to classify spaces according to different functional requirements, and to combine and divide them according to the closeness of their connections;
The principles of functional zoning are: clear zoning, convenient contact, and reasonable arrangement according to the relationship between main, secondary, internal, external, noisy and quiet, so that each has its own place; At the same time, according to the actual use requirements, the location shall be arranged according to the sequence of people flow activities. The combination and division of space shall take the main space as the core, and the arrangement of secondary space shall be conducive to the exertion of the main space function. The space for external contact shall be close to the transportation hub, and the space for internal use shall be relatively hidden. The connection and isolation of space shall be properly handled on the basis of in-depth analysis.
Evacuation of people in public buildings:
Evacuation of people can be divided into normal and emergency situations. Normal evacuation can be divided into continuous (e.g. shops), centralized (e.g. theaters) and combined (e.g. exhibition halls). Emergency evacuation is centralized.
The evacuation of people in public buildings shall be smooth. The setting of buffer zone at the hub shall be considered, and it can be properly dispersed when necessary to prevent excessive congestion. For continuous activities, it is appropriate to set up exits and population separately. According to the fire prevention code, the evacuation time shall be fully considered and the traffic capacity shall be calculated.
The stipulation of the quantity, form and quality of a single space:
The size, capacity, shape, lighting, ventilation, sunshine, temperature, humidity and other conditions of a single space are the basic factors of suitability, and are also important aspects of building function problems, which shall be comprehensively considered in the design.
Public buildings include office buildings, government department offices, etc. Commercial buildings (such as shopping malls and financial buildings), tourist buildings (such as hotels and entertainment venues), science, education, culture and health buildings (including culture, education, scientific research, medical treatment, health, sports buildings, etc.), communication buildings (such as posts and telecommunications, communications, data centers and broadcasting rooms), transportation buildings (such as airports, high-speed railway stations, railway stations, subways and bus stations) and others